Walking is a very ancient activity that is often taken for granted today, but the actual inventor of the technique is unknown. Humans have been walking upright for millions of years, and historians are only recently beginning to unravel the history of this skill. It allowed humans to better see distant objects and conserve energy, freeing up their hands for other tasks. The invention also allowed humans to travel long distances.
Bipedalism allowed humans to see objects from a distance
Bipedalism was developed in early hominines and is attributed to their adaptive behavior. This adaptation enabled them to stretch their arms and reach for fruit in trees, as well as see objects at a distance. Although bipedalism had some advantages, it was also a disadvantage when predators were present.
Bipedalism evolved from a different type of locomotion. This form of locomotion was not initially accompanied by adaptations to the feet, but rather started with the evolution of the pelvis and the spino-pelvic complex. This change allowed humans to see objects at a distance and make the transition from crawling to walking.
Bipedalism may have evolved to accommodate carrying objects that were important to their survival. Since the availability of food was unpredictably determined, carrying food may have been a worthwhile adaptation. In such cases, the need to maximise time and reduce competition may have been important.
It conserved energy
The mechanical energy changes resulting from walking at a constant speed are equal in kinetic energy and potential energy. The changes in mechanical energy are proportional to the decrements in the centre of mass. This implies that the mechanical energy of walking is conserved. External friction also plays a role. But the work done by walking is not equal to the work done by the other forms of exercise.
The positive energy exchanged during walking is mainly caused by the centre of mass and its heelstrike. These two changes increase the GPE and KE. The latter fluctuates at a higher rate during uphill walking than at a level ground surface. Walking uphill requires the generation of more energy to overcome the force of gravity.
Although walking in reduced gravity can save energy, it is still important to remember that walking is still an effort. It requires the muscles to exert their strength against the force of gravity and the body loses energy during this process. As the body ascends, it regains some of this energy as potential energy.
It allowed humans to travel long distances
Walking allows us to get around by moving our legs. Walking allows us to move around by reducing our weight and increasing our life span. It also strengthens our hip bones and lowers the harmful LDL cholesterol in our blood while raising the useful HDL cholesterol. Walking can also lower our risk of dementia. Researchers have found that walking at 70% of your maximum heart rate can burn fat. This rate is calculated by subtracting your age from 220.
Walking has been a proven means of long distance travel for humans. The first known long-distance trip was by foot, over ten thousand years ago. Today, humans walk for various purposes, including recreation, work, and transportation. Distances and duration of walks vary significantly by age and gender, with men and boys walking for the longest periods of time. Walking distances are also affected by urbanization, income, and race/ethnicity.